The Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, was written by an independent international group of experts. The purpose of this manual was to examine how extant international law norms apply on this new form of warfare.

The manual does not reflect NATO doctrine, but is an expression of opinions of the group of experts.


The Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen has opened up for closer cooperation with Australia to combat cybercrime, high seas piracy and other emerging security threats. A political partnership agreement with the Australian Government will be signed. 


Civilian and military experts from Russia and NATO countries met in Ankara, Turkey, on June 20-21. The purpose was to share lessons learned, best practicesand strategies on varaious aspects of critical infrastructure protection. It was emphasized the importance of protecting against cyber attacks.


The Allied Command Transformation set up the Framework for Collaborative Interaction (FFCI) that enables NATO and private industry to work together in a non-procurement manner. Cyberattacks is one of the top three threats facing the Alliance.


The Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen spoke at a conference on October 1 on emerging security risks, including cybersecurity. He said that government and private companies launch cyber-attacks, and government and industry suffer the consequences, in terms of lost revenues, lost data and lost services. He said that the security challenges today are big , and that they were growing. But they may be addressed and minimized, « all it will take is a lot more vigour, a lot more innovation, and a lot more cooperation.»

A workshop on cyber terrorism was organized in Moldova on October 12-16.

The main goal was training the participants in identifying and assessing cyber threats, making effective decisions and elaborating strategies to counter cyber terrorism.

The NATO Review magazine Summer 2009 edition is presenting a discussion on terrorists and organized crime: There is no longer a clear divide between the two groups.


NATO has established a Centre of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism.

NATO has also been active on civil emergency planning. The Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee (SCEPC) assists member States in the protection of civilian populations from terrorist attacks against critical infrastructure. And the responsibility for coordinating the civil critical infrastructure protection lies with the SCEPC.

The Civil Communication Planning Committee (CCPC) is responsible for the electronic public and non-public communication infrastructures, and has published several papers on civil communications infrastructures. And has contributed with papers on consequences regarding cyber-attacks and information warfare on critical civil communication infrastructure.

The Civil Protection committee (CPC) has also initiated work on critical infrastructure protection, and has developed a Critical Infrastructure Protection Concept Paper in 2003. Recently the CPC organized a seminar on Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) – Education”

And finally, the Industrial Planning Committee (IPC) has also contributed on preventive measures for the protection of critical infrastructure.